The Klickitat and Hoh Indians

Table of Contents

-Klickitat
-Needs
-Food
-Transportation
-Tools
-Hoh
-Needs
-Food
-Transportation
-Tools


Klickitat

high_431.jpg

Photograph of Klickitat man courtesy Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtis's 'The North American Indian': the Photographic Images, 2001.

The Klickitat tribe lived in eastern Washington south of Columbia, in the prairies and grasslands. Their name ,Qwû'lh - hwai - pûm,
means "prairie people". They had several basic needs and wants, and supplied them successfully. They have still survived to this day,
surviving near the Yakama Tribe Reservation.

Needs


Food

The Klickitat tribe collected roots and berries (like camas roots and huckleberries) in their traditional baskets. The Klickitat also fished in rivers such as the Klickitat and White Salmon rivers. By the river's name, you can suspect the tribe fished for white salmon, as this salmon is native to Washington. The Klickitat also hunted prairie animals as they were skilled hunters, and were a nomadic tribe. As they went from river to river, the tribe probably collected water at rivers and streams in Eastern Washington, for that wold be their only source.The Klickitat depended greatly upon food, for they were always moving in order to support this need.

Transportation

The Klickitat depended greatly upon transportation, being nomadic. Horses were their greatest ally, as they were always moving across the prairie. Horses were introduced to them by the Spaniards or by trading with other tribes, and they have stuck. Horses not only helped the tribe in transportation, but in their economy. Horses were used in much of their trading between eachother and other peoples. They also were used for hunting, for the Klickitat are also famous for hunting. These are several ways the Klickitat depended on transportation, specifically horses.
IndianHorse-280.jpg
In Eastern Washington, Native Americans rode on horses
Tools
Many tribes in Washington used tools such as baskets for collecting food, as the Klickitat did. They still make their baskets by hand out of grass and hair, weaving them together. The baskets were mainly made by women, who were trained at a relatively young age. The baskets were used to collect roots and berries, gifts at ceremonies, and trading. Among baskets, spears and other similar tools were used for hunting for game and wild animals. These tools were very important to the Klickitat tribe.

Hoh
The Hoh tribe were a more stationary tribe, living near the Hoh river and rainforest, and the Pacific Ocean. They lived very connectively to the ocean and water, as fishing was a large part of the economy. They sometimes traveled, usually in canoe. Here is some information on the Hoh tribe's needs.

Needs

Chinook_Salmon.gif
Salmon were the Hoh tribe's staple
Food
The Hoh tribe's staple was obviously fishing. They fished for salmon on the ocean and in rivers using their canoes. Salmon feasts were held in representation of the salmon's importance in their lives. Salmon was'nt their only food source, though. Fruits and berries were also collected in baskets, like the Klickitat. Since they were next to a rainforest , this was easier in collecting these fruits. Also, game was hunted and collected as another source of meat. Since they had ceremonies for the salmon, these foods were vital to the Hoh tribe, as it gave them life. Water was of course collected in streams leading to the ocean, as the ocean water is to salty. These foods were indeed, important to the Hoh tribe.
IMGP0527.jpg
Picture of where the Hoh tribe lived
Transportation
The Hoh tribe, although not a nomadic tribe, still needed transportation for gathering food and trading. Mainly, they used canoes. The canoes were traditionally made by putting hot water on wood and digging out the shape, as the technique is called "dugout". These canoes were used in fishing for salmon in rivers and the Pacific Ocean, and for travelling. Canoes were commonly used by many of theCoastal tribes of Washington, as the Hoh tribe is on the coast. The canoes' wood was probably cedar, as that is a common tree in Washington on the coast. Canoes were very important to the Hoh tribe.
old-dugout-canoe.jpg
A traditional dugout canoe
Tools
The Hoh tribe used tools, mainly baskets for collecting fruits and berries, and for trading. The baskets were made of cedar bark, bear and what grass, all woven together. Collecting of food was mainly done by the women, ans the men were hunters. The men used spears for hunting native water animals like salmon and whales. The spears were also made of wood from cedar and other trees. These tools show the connection from the Hoh tribe to their enviornment, and how they greatly influence eachother.
Credits

Information
"Entwined with Life: Native American Basketry." Entwined with Life: Native American Basketry. 2001. Washington University. 24 Jan. 2008 <http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/baskets/artists/plateau.html>.

"Hoh River Tribe." Hoh River Tribe. Northwest Area Foundation. 17 Nov. 2007 <http://www.nwaf.org/Content/Files/Horizons/Hoh%20River,%20WA.pdf?pg=Programs/Horizons/Hoh%20River,%20WA.pdf>.

Waldman, Carl. "Klickitat." Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. 3rd ed. 1 vols. New York, NY: Checkmark Books, 2006.

"Washington Indian Tribes." Washington Indian Tribes. 2004. www.accessgenealogy.com. 20 Dec. 2007 <http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington>.

Lambert, Dale A. The Pacific Northwest: Past, Present, and Future. 1st ed. Directed Media, Inc., 2001. 88.

Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. 1st ed. University of Oklahoma P, 1986. 81-82, 95-96.

Pictures
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_tribes_062_13_24.html


http://www.grahamowen.com/Portland-Oregon.html

http://www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-HorseCulture.html

http://www.nwaf.org/Content/Files/Horizons/Hoh%20River,%20WA.pdf?pg=Programs/Horizons/Hoh%20River,%20WA.pdf

http://wildernessclassroom.com/superior/Chinook_Salmon.gif